Greece has 5 less developed, 6 transitional and 1 more developed regions under article 2014/99/EU definitions. In addition, the country is one of the member states eligible for funding from the Cohesion Fund pursuant to Article 4. It has a population of 10.75 million people and covers an area of 131,957 km2. The region includes four level 1 NUTS areas, EL3, EL4, EL5 and EL6 (considering the last changes in NUTS). Agriculture in Greece is one of the main employers, with around 1,212,720 people working in it. The agricultural sector in the country contrasts with the rest of Europe, having much smaller farms on average. The country accounts for 723,101 agricultural holdings and a total cultivated area of 3,477,930 ha, resulting in an average area per holding of 4.8 ha. Indeed, 89% of the total number of farms are smaller than 10 ha. In general, in 2014, there was a low penetration of young farmers in the sector, with only 7% of the holdings owned by young people, while 35% was owned by people over 65 years. This highlights the old-aged workforce and the need for its renewal.
The selected instrument for this case study is “M10.1: Agri-environment-climate commitments”, which is included in the national programme (2014PL06RDNP001) for the period 2014-2020 and rooted in the Article 28 of the 1305/2013 EAFRD regulation. The measure contemplates payments to farmers and land-managers who, on a voluntary basis, commit their farming activities to one or more specific agri-environment-climate practice. The analysis will focus on the actions linked to the maintenance and improvement of the biodiversity and to the preservation of natural resources (soil erosion and water quality).
This AGRICORE use case will analyse the M10.1 measure influence on Poland, especially focusing on the rise of ecosystem services and on the environmental and climate impacts. The ex-post analysis will be done for the period 2014 to 2018 and the ex-ante impact analysis will be done for the period 2019-2020. To perform such analyses, the partners will use FADN, FSS, Eurostat, the Central Statistical Office of Poland, the agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture (ARMA) and CAPRI (models/data) databases. The available data will be complemented with information available at the national and regional level and by the execution of participatory research actions. Biophysical models including crop yields models based on precipitation and temperature data, rainfall distribution models and pedotransfer functions will be used for properly calculating the impact of the measure as well as for enhancing the accuracy of the ABM simulations.