Current situation

Poland covers six NUTS level 1 Regions (PL1-PL6) and has a population of 38.43 million of which 39% live in rural areas. All Poland administrative regions are considered as less developed regions under article 2014/99/EU definition. In addition, the country is one of the member states eligible for funding from the Cohesion Fund pursuant to Article 4. Approximately 30% of the total surface of the country (312,696 km2) is covered by forest and 46% is used for agriculture from which 74.7% is arable land and 22.4% is permanent grassland and meadows. About 14,405,650 ha are used for agriculture, with an average area per farm of 10.65 ha (as there are 1,410,700 farms). The sector employs 2,385,500 people. A significant percentage (62.5%) of the agricultural land is classified as areas with natural constraints (ANC – Article 31 of Regulation (EU) 1303/2013). Moreover, 19.4% of the arable land faces various environmental challenges: 8.2% is particularly endangered by water and/or wind erosion, 3.6% experiences problems with low humus levels and 7.4% are defined as Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (areas that drain into waters polluted by nitrates).

The selected instrument for this case study is “M10.1: Agri-environment-climate commitments”, which is included in the national programme (2014PL06RDNP001) for the period 2014-2020 and rooted in the Article 28 of the 1305/2013 EAFRD regulation. The measure contemplates payments to farmers and land-managers who, on a voluntary basis, commit their farming activities to one or more specific agri-environment-climate practice. The analysis will focus on the actions linked to the maintenance and improvement of the biodiversity and to the preservation of natural resources (soil erosion and water quality).

Improvement potential

This AGRICORE use case will analyse the M10.1 measure influence on Poland, especially focusing on the rise of ecosystem services and on the environmental and climate impacts. The ex-post analysis will be done for the period 2014 to 2018 and the ex-ante impact analysis will be done for the period 2019-2020. To perform such analyses, the partners will use FADN, FSS, Eurostat, the Central Statistical Office of Poland, the agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture (ARMA) and CAPRI (models/data) databases. The available data will be complemented with information available at the national and regional level and by the execution of participatory research actions. Biophysical models including crop yields models based on precipitation and temperature data, rainfall distribution models and pedotransfer functions will be used for properly calculating the impact of the measure as well as for enhancing the accuracy of the ABM simulations.